In today’s digital environment, security incidents are a deep concern for organizations. Any narrow gap in the security line can unfold a severe threat in no time. It is where, Cert-In -The Government-Mandated Information Security Agency hold a significant position in governance to security-related issues.

Web-based applications are on the jump, and at the same time, raises serious threats to information security. Most companies go unaware of the securities vulnerabilities that stick to their application environment. While lurking into the security statistics of the web applications,

  • 9 out of 10 web applications are insecure and offer a potential bite to attackers.
  • Nearly 40 % of sites are susceptible to unauthorized actions or intrusions.
  • Sensitive information leakage accounts for an alarming figure of 68 % of web applications.

CERT-In Security Audits

CERT-IN come with a motive of strengthening overall security-related defence in the Indian Internet domain. The statutory body has authorized auditors responsible for evaluating information security risks and controls connected with approaching organizations. Web application security is a vital factor that defines how secure your application hangs in before hosting. Let’s explore the major threats recorded through web application testing under the auditing phase.

The injection is a process that attackers use to send invalid data to a code interpreter. The injection vulnerability can sprout up in all sorts of places within the web application. The untrusted data tricks the interpreter in executing unintended actions that were not programmed to do so. SQL injection, CRLF injections are some of the common examples.

  • Unsanitized user inputs
  • Outdated applications
  • Insufficient validation efforts
  • Legacy code and dynamic SQL

• Broken authentication
A Broken authentication vulnerability allows attackers to gain access (manual or automatic) by breaking the authentication, compromising passwords, session tokens and keys. With poor design and deployment of access controls, misconfigured authentication imparts an open transit for attackers to engage in identity thefts

  • Weak session management policies
  • Unhealthy password policies
  • Predictable login credentials

Sensitive data leakage
While sorting the biggest threat to web applications, sensitive data exposure hits the highest priority concerning the value of data assets. Insufficient security policies and control strategies that float above applications pave the required access for intruders

  • Improper security policies & practices
  • Unencrypted data flow
  • Insider threats
  • Lacking database protection

XML external entities (XXE)
An XXE is a web security weakness that permits assailants to mediate in the application’s handling of XML information. Most of the XML parsers are susceptible to vulnerabilities by default and offer attackers an ideal gateway to sensitive data, backend systems and server file systems.

  • Poorly configured XML processors
  • Unsanitized user inputs, URLs
  • Vulnerable codebase
  • Vulnerable integrations

• Broken access control
A broken access control vulnerability occurs when someone could bypass the authorization security line and perform actions that they are not supposed to access. The attacker might be able to change, delete, perform unauthorized functions or take over the site administration.

  • Open ports and legacy functionalities
  • Predictable credentials
  • Insecure id’s
  • Missing controls or functionalities

Security misconfigurations
Security misconfiguration vulnerability marks among the top discovered threats connected with security audits. It occurs due to improper security implementations/controls producing security gaps with the application framework.

  • Incomplete configurations
  • Unpatched systems
  • Unencrypted files
  • Web and cloud misconfigurations
  • Weak firewall protection

• Cross-site scripting (XSS)
XSS vulnerabilities allow attackers to inject client-side scripts into the web pages. The vulnerability is used as a propagation method and forces the victim’s browser to execute the malicious code. It is the most widely present vulnerability found while conducting CERT-In security audits.

  • Unvalidated user-generated content
  • Unsafe coding patterns
  • Data from an untrusted source

• Insecure deserialization
Insecure deserialization or object injection vulnerability get targeted against application data that constantly undergoes deserialization and execute arbitrary codes. Insecure deserialization often leads to other DDoS attacks, stealing user sessions and unauthorized gateway to resources.

  • Improper user input deserialization
  • Serialized objects from untrusted sources
  • Application security weakness

• Using components with known vulnerabilities
Today’s web applications get connected with newer integrations such as third-party components, frameworks etc., with known vulnerabilities. Integrating web apps with insecure technologies have resulted in data breaches and security challenges.

  • Legacy code integrations
  • Weak components and sub-components
  • Weak intrusion detection systems

Lack of logging and monitoring system implementation

Not having an efficient logging and monitoring system implementation is often a threat factor to websites with increased security challenges and compromises. It is always advised to keep your websites under regular monitoring policies and controls. An effective monitoring strategy implementation could stand as a barricade for such security challenges and fuel your timely response and action plans.


Effective web application testing and 100 % adherence to security policies while developing has improved organization’s chance to surpass CERT-In audits and win their corresponding safe to host certifications. Web applications are client-side and server-side software that involves client engagement and collaboration efforts. Data security has been a concern with new-gen applications and mitigating the above security threats with CERT-In empanelled auditors has proved the needful for auditees.